Genetics Home > X Chromosome Monosomy

One of the problems a woman with Turner syndrome can have is called X chromosome monosomy, which is the absence of the X chromosome in all cells. In order to diagnose X chromosome monosomy, healthcare providers perform a blood test and look at the chromosomes found in the lymphocytes (a particular type of blood cell).

An Overview of X Chromosome Monosomy

The cause of Turner syndrome is a problem with one of the two X chromosomes (sex chromosomes).
 
A woman with Turner syndrome will have one of three possible X chromosome problems:
 

X Chromosome Monosomy Specifics

During the process in which oocytes (eggs) or sperm are formed, one of the sex chromosomes is sometimes "lost." An embryo receiving only a Y chromosome cannot survive, but an embryo receiving only an X chromosome may survive and develop as a female with Turner syndrome.
 

Diagnosing X Chromosome Monosomy

In order to examine the matching pairs of chromosomes for a person, doctors can perform a blood test and look at the chromosomes found in the lymphocytes (a particular type of blood cell). This will determine the karyotype of that individual.
 
The karyotype of X monosomy is termed "45X" -- meaning that an individual has 44 autosomes and a single X chromosome. The usual female karyotype is 46, XX.
 
(Click Cause of Turner Syndrome for more information on sex chromosomes and the causes of Turner syndrome.)
 
Written by/reviewed by:
Last reviewed by: Arthur Schoenstadt, MD
Last updated/reviewed:
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