Turner Syndrome and Coarctation of the Aorta
About 5 to 10 percent of children with Turner syndrome
are found to have a severe constriction of the major blood vessel coming out from the heart, a condition known as "coarctation of the aorta." This defect is thought to be the result of an obstructed lymphatic system compressing the developing aorta during fetal life. This can be surgically corrected as soon as it is diagnosed.
Other Heart and Blood Vessel Problems Caused by Turner Syndrome
Other major defects in the heart and its major vessels are reported to a much lesser degree. As many as 15 percent of adults with Turner syndrome are reported to have "bicuspid aortic valves
," meaning that the major blood vessel from the heart has only two, rather than three, components to the valve regulating blood flow. This condition has been discovered mainly by medical imaging studies done on women without symptoms, and it may not be clinically obvious. It requires careful medical monitoring, since bicuspid aortic valves can deteriorate or become infected. In general, it is advised that all women with Turner syndrome undergo annual cardiac evaluations.
High Blood Pressure and Turner Syndrome
Many women with Turner syndrome have high blood pressure
, which may be apparent even in childhood. In some cases, this high blood pressure
may be due to aortic constriction, or to kidney abnormalities. In a majority of women, however, no specific cause for the high blood pressure has been found.